Biological Sciences

**BIO 313: Biostatistics **** ****(Credit, 4)**

*Course Content:*

- • Probability Distributions: Normal distribution: Properties, Measures of location and dispersion: Descriptive statistics: (Mean, mode, median, quartile, standard deviation, standard error, coefficient of variation, skewness and kurtosis) Poisson distribution and Binomial distribution
- Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis testing (Confidence levels; concept and rationale of null hypothesis; Type- I and Type-II errors and their interpretation and measurement)
- Field Sampling and Experimental Designs (random, systematic, and stratified sampling; replication, pseudoreplication, controls, paired-sample designs, factorial designs, etc.)
- Null hypothesis and significance testing
- One sample test: Student’s t-test
- Paired-sample t-test
- Analysis of Variance: One-way ANOVA (Analysis and F-testing; Multiple comparisons among means – a priori and a posteriori tests; Assumptions of ANOVA)
- Analysis of Variance: Two-way ANOVA (Significance testing for factor interaction)
- Analysis of variance: Randomized block designs and Repeated Measures designs
- Correlation
- Linear Regression
- Brief introduction to logistic, curvilinear and multiple regressions
- Analysis of frequencies: Tests for goodness of fit and for independence ( 2 and Likelihood ratio tests)
- Power of a statistical test
- Nonparametric Tests (Mann-Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Spearman’s Rank Correlation test, Kruskall-Wallis Test)
- Brief introduction to Bayesian Statistics

*Suggested Books*:

- Baldi, B., and D. S. Moore, 2017. The practice of statistics in the life sciences. 3 rd ed. Freeman Publisher
- Lee, J. H., 2003. Introductory Biostatistics, Wiley-Interscience.
- Pagano, M., and K. Gauvreau, 2000. Principles of Biostatistics. 2 nd ed. Indian Edition. Brooks/Cole
- Sokal, R. R., and F. J. Rohlf, 1995. Biometry. 3 rd ed., Freeman Publishers.
- Whitlock, M.C. and D. Schluter, 2015, The analysis of biological data. W. H. Freeman Publishers.
- Zar, J. H., 2014. Biostatistical analysis. 5 th ed. Pearson Publ.

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