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Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Berhampur

Biological Sciences

BIO 410: Advanced Genetics (Credit, 4)

Course Content:

  1. Mendelian, Non-Mendelian Genetics: Linkage, Crossing Over: Basic Understanding of deviations from Mendel’s ratios. Crossing over, Interference. Analysis of unordered tetrads. The importance of Poisson distributions in modelling stochastic events (with special reference to modelling crossing over frequencies). Mapping functions, Haldane and Kosambi mapping functions. Genetic and Physical maps. Mapping Human disease genes; LoD score analysis.
    • Genetic Phenomena and their basis: Maternal inheritance, Extra-nuclear inheritance, Sex Linked Inheritance: Historical description of these phenomena, current explanations for the same. Genetic disorders associated with all three phenomena.
    • Epigenetics, Dosage Compensation (DC), Genomic Imprinting (GI): A brief introduction to the histone modifications, DNA modifications. Experiments (primarily involving yeast and ciliates) which provided evidence for histone modifications. Genetic Experiments leading to the concept of dosage compensation (Muller, Mukherjee and others). Molecular biology associated with DC (H4K16ac), in Drosophila. Models of DC in worms and mice. The role of Xist in mediating silencing, ICR’s Disorders associated with GI, Prader-Willi and Angelman’s syndrome(s).
  2. Basic Prokaryotic Genetics: Brief revision of Conjugation, Transformation and Transduction. Genetics of bacterial phages.
    • Basic structure of Bacterial transposons. What are the different types of transposons and how are they related? The use of bacterial transposons for mutagenesis.
    • Introduction of DNA into mammalian systems; creating knock-out and knock in strains. Strategies for conditional as well as tissue specific induction of genes (Cre-LoxP systems, FLP-FRT system). RNAi and shRNA based knock down strategies.
    • To briefly describe functional as well as positional cloning in context of mapping human disease genes.
    • Molecular Cloning: Plasmids, their organization and markers required. Vectors based of bacteriophages Phagemids, Cosmids, their features, in vito virion assembly. Eukaryotic Vectors: BAC’s and YAC’s (Bacterial and Yeast Artificial Chromosomes), YEP’s (Yeast Episomal Plasmids), YIP’s (Yeast Integrative Plasmids). Certain other eukaryotic expression systems.
    • Genomics and Next Generation Sequencing: Basic idea behind library generation: (i) Genomic libraries (STS’s) and (ii) cDNA libraries, chromosome walking (EST’s). NGS methods; including use of reversible terminators, techniques for SBS (Sequencing by Synthesis), droplet PCR’s. (i) Pyrosequencing (ii) Illumina sequencing (iii) Ion torrent (iv) SOLID and Nanopore based methods.
    • Genetic markers: RFLP’s, AFLP’s and SNP’s. FISH
  3. The utility of the following Model Organisms will be discussed:
    • a. Escherichia coli b. Arabidopsis thaliana c. Caenorhabditis elegans d. Drosophila melanogaster (Genetic Complementation. Genetic Mapping. Genetic screens as a basis for functional genomics. Deficiencies, EMS & X-ray based mutagenesis screens. Creating alleles. Enhancer traps, EP-Lines, RNA-inheritance, Nusslein-Volhard & Weischaus Zygotic and Maternal Screens. e. Mus musculus f. yeasts and other filamentous fungi.

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