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Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Berhampur

Earth and Environmental Sciences

EES 202B : Foundation of Earth Sciences (Introduction to Mineralogy, Petrology and Rock Deformation) (3)

Learning Objectives:

To introduce students to the elementary idea of mineralogy, petrology and rock deformation..

Course Contents:

Unit-1 Introduction to Mineralogy
Definition of mineral and crystal. Classification of Minerals. Brief introduction to rock-forming minerals (silicate structure and classification).

Unit-2 Mineral Chemistry
Introduction to crystal chemistry - ionic radii and coordination number; Chemical affinity and geochemical classification of elements; Chemical bonding, coordination polyhedra, radius ratio, and Pauling’s rules.

Unit-3 Introduction to Petrology:
Igneous, Metamorphic and Sedimentary rocks Concept of Magma and magmatic crystallization, Bowen’s Reaction series. Classification of igneous rocks, igneous textures and forms of igneous rocks. Metamorphism and agents of metamorphism, types of metamorphism, metamorphic texture, classification of metamorphic rocks. Sedimentary rocks: classification, texture. Grain-size scale, preliminary idea on primary sedimentary structure.

Unit-4: Basic Structural Elements
Diastrophic and non-diastrophic Structures, Structural elements: planar and linear structures, the concept of strike and dip, trend and plunge, rake/pitch, Concept of scale of observation of structures. Topographic maps. Outcrop patterns of different structures.

Unit-5: Folds, Faults and Foliation
Fold morphology; Geometric classification of folds; Fault zone terminology, Geometric classification of faults, Morphological features of foliations and lineations.

Unit-6: Plate Tectonics & Fundamental Earth process Continental Drift and plate tectonics. Plates and plate boundaries. Supercontinent Cycles. Earthquake and earthquake belts, Volcanoes, Concept of isostasy.

Unit-7: Brief outline of major geological subdivisions of India.

Suggested Readings :

  1. Deer, W. A., Howei, R. A., and Zussman, J., 2013 An Introduction to Rock Forming Minerals (3rd Edition), Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
  2. Klein, C., and Butrow, B., 2008, The 23rd edition of the Manual of Mineral Science (4th Edition), John Wiley and Sons.
  3. Nesse, W. D., 2011, Introduction to Mineralogy (2nd Edition), Oxford University Press.
  4. Winter, J. D., 2010, An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology (2nd Edition), Prentice Hall.
  5. Philpotts, A. and Auge, J., 2009, Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology (2nd Edition), Cambridge.
  6. Twiss, R. J., and Moores, E. M., 2007, Structural Geology (2nd Edition), W. H. Freeman and Company.
  7. Ghosh, S. K., 1993, Structural Geology Fundamentals and Modern Developments (1st Edition),Pergamon Press.
  8. Kearey, P., Klepeis, K.A., and Vine F. J., 2009, Global Tectonics (3rd Edition), John Wiley and Sons.

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